Shahzad Bhatti

January 25, 2009

Review of Clean Code

Filed under: Design — admin @ 8:54 pm

I just finished Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship. The book is compilation of patterns on writing clean/maintainable code and is written by uncle Bob and other folks from his consulting company Object Mentors including Tim Ottinger, Michael Feathers (author of Working Effectively with Legacy Code. This book is similar to Implementation Patterns by Kent Beck I also read recently. As opposed, this book is a lot more thick with seventeen chapters, however there are plenty of pages filled with tedious listing of Java code.

The first chapter gathers thoughts on good code from a number innovators and authors such as Kent Beck, Bjarne Stroustrup, Grady Booch, Dave Thomas, etc. They mention various attributes of good code such as easy to read, efficient, DRY, focused, literate, minimal, error handling and warn of bad code that leads to messy code or broken windows mentality.

The chapter 2 talks about golden advice of using intention-revealing names to improve the readability and following principle of least surprise. This chapter denounces use of hungarian notation or member prefix such as _ or m_.

The chapter 3 describes functions and methods and advices to use small, cohesive functions. It suggests using one level of abstraction to facilitate reading code from top to bottom. It also recommends using polymorphic methods as opposed to switch statement, if-else or functions that take flag/boolean arguments. The chapter discourages functions with side effects or the one that create temporarl coupling. This chapter also mentions an aged old advice of command query separation, though it skips its roots from Bertrand Meyer’s design by contract. Finally, this chapter urges use of exceptions as opposed to error codes.

The chapter 4 describes writing good comments that focus on intent and dissuades against redundant and misleading comments.

The chapter 5 illustrates use of good formatting such as identation, horizontal, vertical spacing, etc.

The chapter 6 describes use of objects and data structures. It encompasses advice on polymorphism, law of demeter, encapsulation, DTO/value objects, etc.

The chapter 7 discusses error handling. Again it encourages use of exceptions rather than return codes or error codes. It prohibits use of checked exceptions as it violates open/closed principle. It also discourages returning or passing null and recommends exceptions or empty collection instead of returning null.

The chapter 8 describes boundaries between components.

The chapter 9 describes advice on unit testing such as TDD, keeping tests clean, one assert per test, single concept per test, etc.

The chapter 10 is similar to chapter 6 and contains recommendations on writing classes such as encapsulation, classes should be small, single responsibility principle, cohesion, dependency inversion principle, etc.

The chapter 11 encompasses advice on building systems and managing complexity. It suggests dependency injection and use of factories. It also advocates use of AOP for managing cross cutting concerns.

The chapter 12 talks about emergent design, the concept I first heard from Andy Hunt. This chapter describes advice from Kent Beck: run all tests, refactoring, no duplication, express intents of the programmer and minize the number of classes and methods. This chapter advocates use of template methods to remove duplication and command/visitor patterns to express design to other developers.

The chapter 13 discusses concurrency. It suggests use of single-responsbility principle to keep concurrent code separate from other code, limiting scope of data, keeping threads independent, and use of immutable oobjects or copies of data. It recommends keeping critical section small. The chapter also holds advice on testing threaded code and suggests making threaded code plugable.

The chapter 14 encompasses an excercise on how to incrementally improve code.

The chapter 15 describes JUnit framework and walks reader through improving tests.

The chapter 16 walks reader through another refactor excercise.

The chapter 17 encompasses a number of smells, heuristics and antipatterns. It deters use of poolrly written comments, builds/tests that require more than one step. The chapter prohibits passing too many arguments to functions or use of output/flag arguments to functions. It encourages testing boundrary conditions and respecting overridden safeties. It also proscribes writing code at wrong level of abstraction, i.e., exposing low-level logic through interface. The chapter also forbids exposing derivatives to base classes, having too much information in interface. Other smells include artifical coupling (sharing constants), feature envy (coupling formating logic), flag arguments. This chapter also holds advice of Kent Beck about using explanatory (local/temporary) variables. The chapter recommends use of constants, structure over convention, encapsulate conditionals, avoiding temporal couplings, keeping functions at same level of abstraction and keeping configurable data at high levels. The chapter also contains Java specific is advice such as avoiding wildcards in imports, avoiding use of interface to inherit constants, etc. Finally, the chapter cautions against insufficient tests, use of coverage tool, testing boundary conditions, etc.

In conclusion, this book contains advice from wide range of authors on writing good maintainable code. From being programmer myself for over 20 years, I can attest that writing good code is hard and requires a lot of attention for continually improving and refactoring code. I see too often projects have incredible pressure to deliver and programmers end up using short cuts or not able to refactor the code. Kent often talks about courage in XP and programmers needs to have courage to fight for writing maintainable code and take time to refactor existing code. Finally, I would also caution against using these practices mindlessly as another favorite rule of mine is that every practice or pattern depends on the situation. Unfortunately, there are lot of people in software industry including uncle bob who use these rules in draconian fashion such as always stressing on 100% test coverage or always keeping interfaces separate from implementation (DIP). Such advice may bring more money from consulting work or publication, but is disingenuous for practical use.

January 18, 2009

Tips from Implementation Patterns

Filed under: Computing — admin @ 10:05 pm

I read recently read Kent Beck’s Implementation Patterns book. The book contains a number of low-level programming techniques for improving design of a program. Kent Beck is grand master of programming and a great communicator. If there is one thing you can learn from this book is to communicate design effectively with the code. The book is fairly concise and consists of ten chapters and 130 pages. Following are some of my favorite tips from the book:

Values, Principles and Patterns

Due to his pioneering work in design patterns, Kent uses patterns to identify common programming techniques and similar to his extreme programming style for agile development he divides those techniques into values, principles and patterns. The values focus on high level goals such as communication, simplicity, flexibility. The principles focus on local consequences (minimize side-effect), DRY, keeping data/logic together, symmetry, decalartive (annotations), rate of change (Reuse/Release Equivalency Principle).


The chapter 5 describes different ways of organizing the code using classes, interfaces, versioned interface, abstract class, value object, etc. Kent shows importance of dependency inversion principle of coding to interfaces. He provides trade-offs between interfaces and abstract class such as change in implementation and change of the interface itself. One of the hardest thing in real world is progression of interfaces with new behavior and Kent describes versioned interface for it. Kent also encourages use of value or immutable objects to make the program side-effect free as in functional languages. He bemoans procedural interfaces due to temporal depdency they impose. Inheritance is also most difficult to get right, so Kent gives a lot of advice on that to make sure subclasses follow Liskov Substition Principle. Kent describes discourages use of conditional logic and encourags delegation technique based on polymorphism. He also shows pluggable selector briefly to implement plugin like behavior. Finally, he discourages of use of library classes with static methods and encourages use of instance methods.


The chapter 6 describes patterns for state such as access, variables, parameters, initializations, etc. Unlike functional languages that don’t allow mutable state, imperative languages have to manage state that changes over time. Kent prefers indirect access to the state rather than direct especially when there is dependency between multiple pieces of data. Kent prefers keeping scope of variables local. This chapter also gives good advice on naming variables and parameters. Finally, this chapter describes techniques for eager and lazy initialization.


The chapter 7 describes patterns for control flow, methods and exceptions. In object oriented languages messages are fundamental mechanism for controlling workflow and communicating with the objects. Kent also describes technique for double dispatch (similar to visitor pattern) that provides polymorphic behavior but at the cost of additional coding and maintenance overhead. Other topics include providing guards, naming method and exception handling.


The chapter 8 describes how to divide logic into methods. The chapter describes composed method for calling other methods. It encourages use of symmetry and having same level of abstraction for called methods. Kent also shows use of Method object or Function object that mimics functional style of programming. This chapter also describes conversion methods, factory methods, getter/setter methods and advice of returning copy from the methods instead of internal references.


The chapter 9 describes collections such as arrays, lists, sets, map.

Evolving Framework

This chapter describes how to evolve frameworks without breaking the applications. Kent borrows a lot of his experience from JUnit framework and Eclipse (his buddy Eric Gamma). One of interestic topic is how to use objects and the chapter provides three styles including instantiation, configuration and implmentation. Kent shows how implementation technique allow clients to implement a framework interface and extend behavior. Kent also describes trade-offs of extending interfaces and using specialized interfaces as used by AWT (LayoutManager2). The chapter also offers advice on use of internal classes by clients and how they can be instantiated using constructors, factories, etc.


This book shows a lot of techniques and patterns that most experienced programmers knowingly or unknowningly use on daily basis. Nevertheless, it helps to review these techniques and some trade-offs for them. Though, I wish the book gave a lot more examples and described antipatterns as I often found most of the topics a bit dull.

January 15, 2009

Tips from Effective Java, 2nd edition

Filed under: Java — admin @ 1:56 pm

I have been using Java since ’95 and I just reread Effective Java Second Edition by by Joshua Bloch, it is must have reference book for any Java programmer. It consists of over 75 guidelines for writing better code in Java or any other object oriented language for that better. I describe some of my favorite tips from the book:


Though, this book does not cover design patterns in general but encourages use of factories instead of constructors in certain cases. I also use this advice in cases when I have a lot of constructors and it is difficult to tell which constructor should be used. The factory methods also allows instantiating and returning subclass types. Though, the downside is that factory methods look like other static methods so it may not be obvious. I also use builders when I need to create a class with a lot of parameters and some of those parameters are optional. I often use following interface to build objects:

 public interface Builder<T> {
     public T build();

Use enum for defining Singleton

As Java does not offer language level construct for defining Singletons (as opposed to Scala), defining Singleton can be difficult. The general rule I follow is to make the constructor private and define a static method for getting instance. However, there are still gotchas of preserving Singletons especially upon deserialization. Joshua recommends using enum because it automatically takes care of those edge cases.

Avoid finalize

Since, Java borrowed much of its syntax from C++, it created finalize method for a sort of desctructor. It is often misunderstood by new Java developers because it’s not a destructor. Also, it may not be called by the Java at all. Joshua recommends using try/finally block for any kind of resource allocation/release. I think closures in Java 7 may also help in this regard.


There are tons of gotchas with using generics in Java. One of my favorite tip to reduce amount of code is to define helper methods is to type inferencing, e.g.

   public static <K,V> Map<K, V> newMap() {
         return new HashMap<K, V>();

One of confusing part of generics is when to use extend vs super, the book gives easy acronym PECS (producer extend consumer super) for remembering it. For example, following code shows a method that adds items to a collection:

   void popall(Collection<? super E> d) {
   void pushAll(Iterable<? extends E> src) {
      for (E e : src)

Functional Programming

Though, Java is not a functional language, but Joshua offers some tips on creating functors or function objects, e.g.

         interface UnaryFunction<T> {
            public T apply(T arg);

Now this interface can be implemented for various operations and give a flavor of functional programming. Again, closures in Java 7 would help in this regard.

EnumSet and EnumMap

I have rarely used EnumSet and EnumMap in practice, but the book offers useful tips for using those instead of bit masking and manipulation.


Though, I like Java Concurrency in Practice for concurrency and threading related topics. But the book offers good tips such as using immutable classes and use of synchronization features of Java for writing thread-safe applications. One of my favorite tip is to use double check idiom, I learned that when Java initially came out and synchronization was somewhat expensive. However, I stopped using it due to some of concerns in Java memory model. Java 1.5 has fixed the Java memory model so we can use it again by declaring the shared field as volatile and doing something like:

   volatile FieldHolder fh;
   void foo() {
     FieldHolder ref = fh;
     if (ref == null) {
         synchronized (this) {
             ref = fh;
             if (ref == null) {
                fh = ref = compute();

Another tip is to use lazy init holder pattern for initializing static field lazily that requires some synchronization, e.g.

 class MyClass {
     static class FieldHolder {
         static Field field = compute();
     static Field get() {
         return FieldHolder.field;
     static synchronized Field compute() {

Other threading tips include use of Executors and classes from new Java concurrency library (java.util.concurency).

Cloning and Serialization

The short answer for cloning is not to use it and instead use constructors to copy objects. The serialization creates a lot of security problems and can be difficult when using inheritance.


Joshua also offers a lot of good advice for exceptions such as using exceptions with proper abstraction level. Though, he still suggests use of checked exceptions for recoverable errors but my suggestion is to use RuntimeException for both application/non-recoverable exceptions and system/recoverable exceptions.

equals, hashCode, toString, Comparable

Writing equals method when inheritance is used can also be difficult and Joshua offers a lot of good advice on writing correct equals method. Another gotcha is to make sure hashCode matches semantics of equals method. Also, it good idea to implement Comparable interface so that it’s easy to use sorted collections.


I briefly wrote some of my favorite tips from the book, again it’s absolute desk reference book.

January 10, 2009

Launched beta version of Deal Red Hot or Not! website and facebook app.

Filed under: Computing — admin @ 10:27 pm

Over the holidays, I spent a little time on launching a new website Deal Red Hot or Not! to share tips on savings and great deals. I spent few hours today to finish facebook version of the site . Though, the site still need more work, but give it a try and send me your feedback.

January 7, 2009

Sign petitions to stop killings of innocent civilians in Gaza

Filed under: Humanity — admin @ 7:55 am

Sign these petitions to stop killings of innocent civilians in Gaza:


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